ß2-Glycoprotein 1 (Apolipoprotein H)
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Anti-Phospholipid Syndrome / Thromboembolic Syndrome
ß2-glycoprotein 1 (ß2-GP 1) is a serum protein with a single polypeptide chain consisting of 326 amino acids and having a molecular weight of 50 kDa. The protein is also known by the alternative name Apolipoprotein H (ApoH) which gives an indication of its phospholipid binding function.
Since the detection of ß2-glycoprotein 1 as a target of antiphospholipid antibodies in 1990 the discussion about the clinical relevance of β2-GP 1 has been controversial. It is well established that anticardiolipin antibodies are a very heterogeneous group and that ß2-GP 1 is only one of several potential targets for anticardiolipin antibodies. Nevertheless it is generally accepted that the binding of ß2-GP 1 to anionic lipids or surface is essential for the differential detection of anticardiolipin antibodies associated with autoimmune diseases (versus those associated with infectious diseases like syphilis, tuberculosis, AIDS etc).
The close relationship of ß2-GP 1 antibodies and cardiolipin antibodies may indicate that the ß2-GP 1 isotypes have the same clinical relevance as the cardiolipin isotypes, where IgM, IgG and IgA autoantibodies have been observed and are routinely determined diagnostic targets.
ß2-GP 1 antibodies and anticardiolipin antibodies can be detected in patients with arterial and venous thrombosis, recurrent fetal loss, thrombosis and SLE. The titers of anticardiolipin and anti-ß2-GP 1 antibodies usually fluctuate to an extent that they cannot be used for disease monitoring.
In a recent development, the classification criteria for definite antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) the so-called Sapporo criteria have been revised to include the determination of anti-ß2-glycoprotein 1 autoantibodies, thereby confirming the clinical relevance of this diagnostic parameter (follow this link for a more detailed news article).
To allow optimal assay development DIARECT offers two distinct ß2-glycoprotein 1 antigens: a recombinant protein, β2-Glycoprotein 1 (Apolipoprotein H) and a non recombinant, human β2-Glycoprotein 1.
In addition, a non recombinant, bovine β2-Glycoprotein 1 is available for the development of anticardiolipin assays.
Full-length ß2-Glycoprotein 1 (Apolipoprotein H) from DIARECT is produced in the baculovirus / insect cell expression system.